Foreign Policy Decision-Making Process on the Example of Psychological Characters of U.S. Presidents
Formation of the internal politics is a difficult process. Its key element consists of the formulation and adoption of foreign policy decisions, and their character depends on many factors. These include geographical position of the country, existence of military and economic power, cultural, historical traditions, as well as the type of the political system, social structure of the society, and individual features of political leaders.
Acceptation of foreign policy decisions may reflect critically not only on the country where it was accepted, but on the fate of humanity as well. It became more evident after the Cuban crisis in the year of 1962, when Soviet strategic missiles were placed in Cuba, and USA replied by blockading the island. At the time, decisions of both American or Soviet leaders on the nuclear attack could lead to an irreparable mistake. Along with increased awareness about the process, the acceptation of foreign policy decisions, especially in the situation of conflict and crisis, became one of the most important topics of scientific research.
At present, several scientific directions and schools have been created, which are working on the problems of decision-making and findings the ways for the process optimization. These types of schools and directions are “overlapping,” thus it is difficult to classify those one by one. In such situation, consideration of the directions, which would be more interesting for researchers, looks as more justified.
Keywods: Political Psychology, Decision-making, Psychoanalysis, behaviorism, cognitivism, US Presidents