Modality Expressing Peculiarities in Different Languages (Based on the English and Georgian Languages)

  • Nunu GELDIASHVILI Prof. Dr.
  • Manana GARIBASHVILI Prof. Dr.
  • Ia NADIRADZE Professor’s Assistant
Keywords: Equivalent, modality, mood, obligation, subjunctive


The article deals with the means of expressing modality in the English language and their Georgian equivalents, particularly the modal verbs expressing a sense of obligation or duty. As the study revealed, certain similarities and differences are found between the modal systems of the English and Georgian languages. In both cases modality is associated with mood and parenthetic elements. However, unlike the English language, parenthetic elements expressing sensual attitude are not discussed in the
Georgian system of modality. The particle უნდა in the Georgian language is the equivalent of the English modal verbs ought, should, have to, must, but not the equivalent of the modal verbs need/need not, which belong to the group of above-mentioned English modal verbs. belonging to the same group. The particle უნდა has great importance in Georgian language as it has various meanings and expresses: obligation, duty, advice and wise decision.

Author Biographies

Iakob Gogebashvili Telavi State University, Telavi, Georgia.
Manana GARIBASHVILI, Prof. Dr.
Iakob Gogebashvili Telavi State University
Ia NADIRADZE, Professor’s Assistant
Iakob Gogebashvili Telavi State University